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The Nile River
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Nile, longest river in the world, located in northeastern Africa. From its principal source, Lake Victoria, in east central Africa, the Nile flows north through Uganda, Sudan, and Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea, a distance of 5584 km (3470 mi). From its remotest headstream in Burundi, the river is 6,695 km (4,160 mi) long. The river basin covers an area of more than 3,349,000 sq km (more than 1,293,000 sq mi).At 4,132 miles (6,650 km.), the Nile River is the longest river in the world. It has its origins in Burundi, south of the equator, and flows northward through northeastern Africa, eventually flowing through Egypt and finally draining into the Mediterranean Sea. Three principal streams form the Nile. In Ethiopia's highlands, water flows from the Blue Nile and the Atbara. Headstreams of the White Nile flow into Lake Victoria and Lake Albert. The Nile River basin is immense and occupies an area about one-tenth of the continent of Africa. It includes portions of Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, The Sudan, and Egypt. It is estimated to drain an area of 1,293,000 square miles (3,349,000 sq. km.)The Nile receives its name from the Greek Neilos, which means a valley or river valley. The river flowed northward and flooded the lands in Egypt, leaving behind black sediment. As a result the ancient Egyptians called the river Ar or Aur (black). The Greeks and Egyptians also gave the land its oldest name Kem or Kemi, which also translates into black. The river's water and the fertile soil along its banks created the perfect setting for the evolution of the civilizations that existed in the ancient world. The ancient peoples that lived along the river's banks cultivated the art of agriculture and were one the first to utilize the plow. Throughout the year, the Nile serves as a constant source of water. This enables farming along its banks in spite of the high temperatures that occur. In those regions, especially The Sudan, where there is enough rainfall to support cultivation, the high temperatures evaporate enough of the water making irrigation necessary. In addition to its vital role in agriculture, its waterways also play a major role in transportation. During seasonal flooding it enables transportation to those areas where road access is not possible. During the 20th century, dependence on the waterways as a sole source of transportation has been reduced as facilities for air, rail and highways have expanded.
III. Economic Importance Print section Irrigation along much of the river supports the growth of agricultural products such as cotton, wheat, sorghum, dates, citrus fruits, sugarcane, and various legumes. Local communities fish its waters. Ferries and barges navigate between Aswan and Qina in Egypt, between the third and fourth cataracts in northern Sudan, from Juba to Kusti in southern Sudan, and on Lakes Nasser and Victoria. Principal river ports are Luxor and Aswan in Egypt and WadiHalfa', Dunqulah, Kuraymah, Kusti, Malakal and Juba in Sudan. Tourism is important around ancient Egyptian sites near the river, such as Al Karnak and the pyramids at Giza. To raise water levels for irrigation in the late 19th century, several dams were built across the Egyptian Nile, the most important being at Qina, Asyut, and north of Cairo. The first dam on the Nile, the Aswan Dam, was built in 1902 and heightened in 1936. The Sennar Dam was built across the Blue Nile south of Khartoum following World War I (1914-1918) to provide irrigation water for Sudanese cotton plantations. Hydroelectric dams were constructed at Jabal al Awliya' on the White Nile (1937), Owen Falls in Uganda (1954), and Rosaries on the Blue Nile (1962). The Aswan High Dam, completed in 1970, impounds one of the world's largest reservoirs, Lake Nasser. Annual summer flooding of the Nile once deposited rich sediment along its banks, creating fertile farmland. However, the dams now control the flooding, drastically reducing sedimentation and fertility. The dams' environmental impact has been profound, as stretches of the river above the dams have become clogged with silt, and decreased flooding has led to increased erosion and greater salt content in the soil and water of the delta. Local communities and ancient sites in Egypt and Sudan were either submerged or relocated because of the dams.


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