The Tragic Story of the Titanic
Before the fate of the Titanic, Morgan Robertson wrote a book called The Wreck
of the Titan in 1898. The ship predicted "unsinkable" sank. Many lives
were lost due to too few lifeboats. This story predicted the fate of the Titanic. f1q14qk
In 1907, J. B. Ismay, president of White Star Lines, and Lord Pirrie, chairman
of Harland & Wolff shipbuilders, discussed to plan three ocean liners, one
of which was the Titanic. The Titanic would become the biggest ship of her day.
On April 10, 1912, the Titanic, commanded by Captain Edward J. Smith, set sail.
On April 11, 1912, there were seven warning messages about icebergs on the Titanic's
course. These messages were noted but were not taken into account. At around
11:40 p.m. Sunday, April 14, the Titanic hit an iceberg. (The picture shows
distress flares after the Titanic hit the iceberg). By 2:18 a.m., April 15,
1912, the Titanic submerged into the murky water and sank to her final resting
The Titanic was discovered by Robert Ballard (left) in August 1985. With the
help of Sonar and Agro, Ballard and his research team found the wreck. Argo
was a small submarine (more like a sled) with lights and cameras. It was operated
by the research team above her in her mother ship, Knorr. With the help of Argo's
cameras, the Titanic was found. Without the use of Argo, the Titanic may not
have been found.
After the discovery, one year later Ballard and his research team travelled
back to take a closer look. They used a small submarine, Alvin, to get a first
hand look at the wreck. To explore the Titanic closer, a crew member inside
Alvin manipulated Jason, a robotic mini sub. Jason was the first to explore
and see the Titanic since 1912!
Below is how the Titanic looks at her final resting place. On the left is the
stern (rear of boat) and on the right is the bow (front of the boat).
WHY: I think that the sinking of the Titanic is one of the 10 most important
events of the human kind because it marked the people and the history.
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden is both one of the CIA's most wanted men and a hero to many
young people in the Arab world.
He and his associates were already being sought by the US on charges of international
terrorism, including in connection with the 1998 bombing of American embassies
in Africa and last year's attack on the USS Cole in Yemen.
In May this year a US jury convicted four men believed to be linked with bin
Laden of plotting the embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania.
Bin Laden, an immensely wealthy and private man, has been granted a safe haven
by Afghanistan's ruling Taleban movement.
During his time in hiding, he has called for a holy war against the US, and
for the killing of Americans and Jews. He is reported to be able to rally around
him up to 3,000 fighters.
He is also suspected of helping to set up Islamic training centres to prepare
soldiers to fight in Chechnya and other parts of the former Soviet Union.
Sponsored by US and Pakistan
His power is founded on a personal fortune earned by his family's construction
business in Saudi Arabia.
Born in Saudi Arabia to a Yemeni family, Bin Laden left Saudi Arabia in 1979
to fight against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
The Afghan jihad was backed with American dollars and had the blessing of the
governments of Saudi Arabia and Pakistan.
He received security training from the CIA itself, according to Middle Eastern
analyst Hazhir Teimourian.
While in Afghanistan, he founded the Maktab al-Khidimat (MAK), which recruited
fighters from around the world and imported equipment to aid the Afghan resistance
against the Soviet army.
Egyptians, Lebanese, Turks and others - numbering thousands in bin Laden's estimate
- joined their Afghan Muslim brothers in the struggle against an ideology that
Turned against the US
After the Soviet withdrawal, the "Arab Afghans", as bin Laden's faction
came to be called, turned their fire against the US and its allies in the Middle
Bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia to work in the family construction business,
but was expelled in 1991 because of his anti-government activities there.
He spent the next five years in Sudan until US pressure prompted the Sudanese
Government to expel him, whereupon bin Laden returned to Afghanistan.
Terrorism experts say bin Laden has been using his millions to fund attacks
against the US.
The US State Department calls him "one of the most significant sponsors
of Islamic extremist activities in the world today".
According to the US, bin Laden was involved in at least three major attacks
- the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, the 1996 killing of 19 US soldiers in
Saudi Arabia, and the 1998 bombings in Kenya and Tanzania.
BBC correspondent James Robbins says bin Laden had "all but admitted involvement"
in the Saudi Arabia killings.
Some experts say he is part of an international Islamic front, bringing together
Saudi, Egyptian and other groups.
Their rallying cry is the liberation of Islam's three holiest places - Mecca,
Medina and Jerusalem.
Analysts say bin Laden's organisation is very different from the groups that
carried out bombings and hijackings in the past in that it is not a tightly
knit group with a clear command structure but a loose coalition of groups operating
American officials believe bin Laden's associates may operate in over forty
countries - in Europe and North America, as well as in the Middle East and Asia.
The few outsiders who have met bin Laden describe him as modest, almost shy.
He rarely gives interviews.
He is believed to be in his 40s, and to have at least three wives.
WHY: I think his birth was one of the most important 10 events of the human
kind because if there wasn’t any Osama bin Laden, USA would not know how
it is to fight to defend their territory.
The World Trade Center
Height: 1,368 and 1,362 feet (417 and 415 meters)
Owners: Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Architect: Minoru Yamasaki, Emery Roth and Sons consulting
Engineer: John Skilling and Leslie Robertson of Worthington, Skilling, Helle
Ground Breaking: August 5, 1966
Opened: 1970-73; April 4, 1973 ribbon cutting
The World Trade Center is more than its signature twin towers: it is a complex
of seven buildings on 16-acres, constructed and operated by the Port Authority
of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). The towers, One and Two World Trade Center,
rise at the heart of the complex, each climbing more than 100 feet higher than
the silver mast of the Empire State Building.
Construction of a world trade facility had been under consideration since the
end of WWII. In the late 1950s the Port Authority took interest in the project
and in 1962 fixed its site on the west side of Lower Manhattan on a superblock
bounded by Vesey, Liberty, Church and West Streets. Architect Minoru Yamasaki
was selected to design the project; architects Emery Roth & Sons handled
production work, and, at the request of Yamasaki, the firm of Worthington, Skilling,
Helle and Jackson served as engineers.
The Port Authority envisioned a project with a total of 10 million square feet
of office space. To achieve this, Yamasaki considered more than a hundred different
building configurations before settling on the concept of twin towers and three
lower-rise structures. Designed to be very tall to maximize the area of the
plaza, the towers were initially to rise to only 80-90 stories. Only later was
it decided to construct them as the world's tallest buildings, following a suggestion
said to have originated with the Port Authority's public relations staff.
Yamasaki and engineers John Skilling and Les Robertson worked closely, and the
relationship between the towersi design and structure is clear. Faced
with the difficulties of building to unprecedented heights, the engineers employed
an innovative structural model: a rigid "hollow tube" of closely spaced
steel columns with floor trusses extending across to a central core. The columns,
finished with a silver-colored aluminum alloy, were 18 3/4" wide and set
only 22" apart, making the towers appear from afar to have no windows at
Also unique to the engineering design were its core and elevator system. The
twin towers were the first supertall buildings designed without any masonry.
Worried that the intense air pressure created by the buildingsi high
speed elevators might buckle conventional shafts, engineers designed a solution
using a drywall system fixed to the reinforced steel core. For the elevators,
to serve 110 stories with a traditional configuration would have required half
the area of the lower stories be used for shaftways. Otis Elevators developed
an express and local system, whereby passengers would change at "sky lobbies"
on the 44th and 78th floors, halving the number of shaftways.
Construction began in 1966 and cost an estimated $1.5 billion. One World Trade
Center was ready for its first tenants in late 1970, though the upper stories
were not completed until 1972; Two World Trade Center was finished in 1973.
Excavation to bedrock 70 feet below produced the material for the Battery Park
City landfill project in the Hudson River. When complete, the Center met with
mixed reviews, but at 1,368 and 1,362 feet and 110 stories each, the twin towers
were the world's tallest, and largest, buildings until the Sears Tower surpassed
them both in 1974.
On the 11th of September 2001 The World Trade Center collapsed becaused it was
struck by two civillian airplanes.
WHY: I think that this is one of the 10 most important events of the human kind
because since then the interstate relations considerately changed.
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Charles Darwin, M.A.,
Fellow of the Royal, Geological, Linnaan, etc. societies; Author of Journal
of researches during H. M. S. Beagle's Voyage round the world. London: John
Murray, Albemarle Street, 1859
Slow process of change from one form to another, as in the evolution of the
universe from its formation in the Big Bang to its present state, or in the
evolution of life on Earth. Some Christians and Muslims deny the theory of evolution
as conflicting with the belief that God created all things. English naturalist
Charles Darwin assigned the main role in evolutionary change to natural selection
acting on randomly occurring variations (now known to be produced by spontaneous
changes or mutations in the genetic material of organisms).
Organic evolution traces the development of simple unicellular forms to more
complex forms, ultimately to the flowering plants and vertebrate animals, including
man. The Earth contains an immense diversity of living organisms: about a million
different species of animals and half a million species of plants have so far
been described. There is overwhelming evidence that this vast array arose by
a gradual process of evolutionary divergence and not by individual acts of divine
creation as described in the Book of Genesis. There are several lines of evidence:
the fossil record, the existence of similarities or homologies between different
groups of organisms, embryology, and geographical distribution.
The idea of continuous evolution in the living world can be traced as far back
as Lucretius in the 1st century BC, but it did not gain wide acceptance until
the 19th century, following the work of Scottish geologist Charles Lyell, French
naturalist Jean Baptiste Lamarck, English naturalist Charles Darwin, and English
biologist Thomas Henry Huxley. Darwin assigned the major role in evolutionary
change to natural selection acting on randomly occurring variations. Natural
selection occurs because those individuals better adapted to their particular
environments reproduce more effectively, thus contributing their characteristics
to future generations. The current theory of evolution, called neo-Darwinism
, combines Darwin's theory with Austrian biologist Gregor Mendel's theories
on genetics and Hugo de Vries's discovery of genetic mutation. Although neither
the general concept of evolution nor the importance of natural selection is
doubted by the vast majority of biologists, there remains dispute over other
possible processes involved in evolutionary change. Besides natural selection
and sexual selection , chance may play a large part in deciding which genes
become characteristic of a population, a phenomenon called `genetic drift'.
It is now also clear that evolutionary change does not always occur at a constant
rate, but that the process can have long periods of relative stability interspersed
with periods of rapid change. This has led to new theories, such as punctuated
equilibrium model . See also adaptive radiation .
Although the broad outlines of the evolutionary sequence are known, much research
is still necessary to fill in the details and to discover the mechanisms of
evolutionary change. Evolution depends on the presence of heritable variations
in a population which confer a selective advantage on the individuals displaying
them. The phrase `survival of the fittest' is misleading since it implies the
death of the `unfit' individuals. From an evolutionary point of view, fertility
is much more important than survival since if one type regularly leaves more
offspring than another, the frequency of the more fertile type in the population
is bound to increase. Fertility depends on many things including general vigor,
the length of the reproductive period and the ability to mate successfully.
Heritable changes arise from genetic mutations which occur spontaneously in
all organisms. Many investigations, which are currently being made into the
genetic structures of living plant and animal populations, show the relative
importance of mutations and isolation in the origin of new species. It is believed
that the processes now occurring on a very small scale are the same as those
which have caused the evolution of the major groups over a vast period of geological
time. These studies will therefore throw light on the mechanism of evolution.
Evolution is a diagram by Charles Darwin of Galapagos finches, drawn during
the voyage of the Beagle. On the Galapagos Islands, Darwin found a colony of
finches that contained at least 14 distinct species, none of which existed on
the continental mainland. He proposed that, in the isolated environment of the
islands, the finches had evolved over many generations and were embroiled in
a `survival of the fittest'.
WHY: I think the appearance of the book “Origin of Species” is one
of the 10 most important events of the human kind because it lets us know from
The discovery of the telephone
Telephone Instrument for communicating by voice over long distances were invented
by US inventor Alexander Graham Bell 1876. The transmitter (mouthpiece) consists
of a carbon micro-phone, with a diaphragm that vibrates when a person speaks
into it. The diaphragm vibrations compress grains of carbon to a greater or
lesser extent, altering their resistance to an electric current passing through
them. This sets up variable electrical signals, which travel along the telephone
lines to the receiver of the person being called. There they cause the magnetism
of an electromagnet to vary, making a diaphragm above the electromagnet vibrate
and give out sound waves, which mirror those that entered the mouthpiece originally.
The Microphone Primary is a component in a sound-reproducing system, whereby
the mechanical energy of sound waves is converted into electrical signals by
means of a transducer. One of the simplest is the telephone receiver mouthpiece,
invented by Scottish-US inventor Alexander Graham Bell in 1876; other types
of microphone are used with broadcasting and sound-film apparatus.
Telephones have a carbon microphone, which reproduces only a narrow range of
frequencies. For live music, a moving-coil microphone is often used. In it,
a diaphragm that vibrates with sound waves moves a coil through a magnetic field,
thus generating an electric current. The ribbon microphone combines the diaphragm
and coil. The condenser microphone is most commonly used in recording and works
by a capacitor.
Telecommunications and Communications over a distance is generally made by electronic
Long-distance voice communication was pioneered 1876 by Scottish scientist Alexander
Graham Bell when he invented the telephone. Today it is possible to communicate
with most countries by telephone cable, or by satellite or microwave link, with
over 100,000 simultaneous conversations and several television channels being
carried by the latest satellites. Integrated-Services Digital Network (ISDN)
makes videophones and high-quality fax possible; the world's first large-scale
center of ISDN began operating in Japan 1988. ISDN is a system that transmits
voice and image data on a single transmission line by changing them into digital
signals. The chief method of relaying long-distance calls on land is microwave
The first mechanical telecomunications systems were the semaphore and heliograph
(using flashes of sunlight), invented in the mid-19th century, but the forerunner
of the present telecommunications age was the electric telegraph. The earliest
practicable telegraph instrument was invented by William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone
in Britain 1837 and used by railroad companies. In the US, Samuel Morse invented
a signaling code, Morse code , which is still used, and a recording telegraph,
first used commercially between England and France 1851. Following German physicist
Heinrich Hertz's discoveries using electromagnetic waves, Italian inventor Guglielmo
Marconi pioneered a `wireless' telegraph, ancestor of the radio. He established
wireless communication between England and France 1899 and across the Atlantic
1901. The modern telegraph uses teleprinters to send coded messages along telecommunications
lines. Telegraphs are keyboard-operated machines that transmit a five-unit Baudot
code. The receiving teleprinter automatically prints the received message.
The drawback to long-distance voice communication via microwave radio transmission
is that the transmissions follow a straight line from tower to tower, so that
over the sea the system becomes impracticable. A solution was put forward 1945
by the science-fiction writer Arthur C Clarke, when he proposed a system of
communications satellites in an orbit 35,900 km/22,300 mi above the equator,
where they would circle the Earth in exactly 24 hours, and thus appear fixed
in the sky. Such a system is now in operation internationally, by Intelsat .
The satellites are called geostationary satellites (syncoms). The first to be
successfully launched, by Delta rocket from Cape Canaveral, was Syncom 2 in
July 1963. Many such satellites are now in use, concentrated over heavy traffic
areas such as the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans. Telegraphy, telephony,
and television transmissions are carried simultaneously by high-frequency radio
waves. They are beamed to the satellites from large dish antennae or Earth stations,
which connect with international networks. Recent advances include the use of
fiber-optic cables consisting of fine fiberglass for telephone lines instead
of the usual copper cables. The telecommunications signals are transmitted along
the fibers on pulses of laser light. telecommunications Satellite dish. Geostationary communications satellites over
the Earth's equator which orbit in 24 hours permit connections between all points
on the Earth's surface to be made using such dishes. Satellite dishes are commonly
used by European households to receive television channels broadcast by satellite.
WHY: I think that the invention of the telephone was one of the 10 most important
events of the human kind because now the telephone is an indispensable thing
and it is part of our lives for some of us.
The Apollo program
The Apollo program is the US program to land human beings on the moon. Inaugurated
May, 1961, by President J. Kennedy, the program suffered a serious setback in
the preparatory phase when a fire broke out in the Apollo 1 space capsule (Jan.
27, 1967) during testing at Cape Kennedy. Three astronauts in the capsule were
killed, the first deaths of US astronauts. Preparations for the moon landing
included a number of preliminary missions and several moon landings were eventually
made. Apollo 8 was the first manned moon orbit (Dec. 1968), and Apollo 11 was
the first moon landing (July 20, 1969). In the latter, astronaut N. Armstrong
became the first man to walk on the moon. Apollo 17 (Dec., 1972) was the last
flight of the program. Apollo project US space project to land a person on the
Moon, achieved 20 July 1969, when Neil Armstrong was the first to set foot there.
He was accompanied on the Moon's surface by Col Edwin E Aldrin, Jr; Michael
Collins remained in the orbiting command module.
The program was announced 1961 by President Kennedy. The world's most powerful
rocket, Saturn V, was built to launch the Apollo spacecraft, which carried three
astronauts. When the spacecraft was in orbit around the Moon, two astronauts
would descend to the surface in a lunar module to take samples of rock and set
up experiments that would send data back to Earth. The first Apollo mission
carrying a crew, Apollo 7, Oct 1968, was a test flight in orbit around the Earth.
After three other preparatory flights, Apollo 11 made the first lunar landing.
Five more crewed landings followed the last 1972. The total cost of the program
was over $24 billion.
Apollo project The crew of Apollo 11 , who made the first lunar landing in July
1969 (from left to right): Neil Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command
module pilot; and Edwin `Buzz' Aldrin Jr, lunar module pilot. While Armstrong
and Aldrin actually set foot on the Moon's surface, Collins remained in orbit
in the command module.
Apollo-Soyuz test project Joint US-Soviet space mission in which an Apollo and
a Soyuz craft docked while in orbit around the Earth on 17 July 1975. The craft
remained attached for two days and crew members were able to move from one craft
to the other through an air lock attached to the nose of the Apollo. The mission
was designed to test rescue procedures as well as having political significance.
In the Apollo craft were Thomas Patten Stafford (commander), Vance DeVoe Brand,
and Donald Kent Slayton; the Soyuz vehicle carried Alexei Archipovich Leonov
(commander) and Valeri Nikolayevich Kubasov. The project began with the signing
of an agreement May 1972 by US president Nixon and Soviet premier Kosygin.
WHY: I think that going in space is one of the 10 most important events of the
human kind because it opened new doors to the technology development.
(1451 -; 1506)
Genoese navigator in the service of Spain, credited with the discovery (1492)
of America. Though the Vikings are believed to have previously landed (c1000)
in North America, it was Columbus voyage that opened the great epoch of European
exploration and colonization in the New World. Columbus became an experienced
navigator while serving the Genoese and Portuguese, and his idea of sailing
west to Asia was not new. It was not until 1492, however, that the Spanish monarchs
Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to support his venture. He left Spain (Aug. 3,
1492) with three ships, (the Santa Maria, Nina and Pinta ) and landed on the
island of San Salvador in the Bahamas Oct. 12, just over two months later. Believing
he had reached islands east of Japan, he briefly explored the Caribbean and
then returned to Spain later in October. Three other voyages followed (1493,
1498, 1502), on which he discovered other Caribbean islands and reached the
South American coast. Unable to adequately administer the Spanish colony in
the New World he was removed as governor (1500), and died shortly after his
disastrous fourth voyage (1502 04).
Leif Ericson ( Ericsson, Erikson, Eriksson) fl. 1000 was a norse explorer, son
of Eric the Red. Raised among the Norse colonists in Greenland, he was converted
to Christianity while visiting Norway. Sent back to Greenland to convert the
colonists, he apparently went off course and landed somewhere in North America,
which he called Vinland. He wintered there and then went on to Greenland. By
another account, he first went to Greenland and then sailed westward on a voyage
WHY: I think that the discovery of America is one of the 10 most important events
of the human kind because if there was no America we would not have all the
advanced technology and who knows what the world would be like.
World War Two
Appearing before the Nazi Reichstag (Parliament) on the sixth anniversary of
his coming to power, Adolf Hitler made a speech commemorating that event and
also made a public threat against the Jews...
"In the course of my life I have very often been a prophet, and have usually
been ridiculed for it. During the time of my struggle for power it was in the
first instance only the Jewish race that received my prophecies with laughter
when I said that I would one day take over the leadership of the State, and
with it that of the whole nation, and that I would then among other things settle
the Jewish problem. Their laughter was uproarious, but I think that for some
time now they have been laughing on the other side of their face. Today I will
once more be a prophet: if the international Jewish financiers in and outside
Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then
the result will not be the Bolshevizing of the earth, and thus the victory of
Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!" Adolf Hitler
- January 30, 1939
In October of 1939 amid the turmoil of the outbreak of war Hitler ordered widespread
"mercy killing" of the sick and disabled. Code named "Aktion
T 4," the Nazi euthanasia program to eliminate "life unworthy of life"
at first focused on newborns and very young children. Midwives and doctors were
required to register children up to age three who showed symptoms of mental
retardation, physical deformity, or other symptoms included on a questionnaire
from the Reich Health Ministry. A decision on whether to allow the child to
live was then made by three medical experts solely on the basis of the questionnaire,
without any examination and without reading any medical records. Each expert
placed a + mark in red pencil or - mark in blue pencil under the term "treatment"
on a special form. A red plus mark meant a decision to kill the child. A blue
minus sign meant meant a decision against killing. Three plus symbols resulted
in a euthanasia warrant being issued and the transfer of the child to a 'Children's
Specialty Department' for death by injection or gradual starvation. The decision
had to be unanimous. In cases where the decision was not unanimous the child
was kept under observation and another attempt would be made to get a unanimous
decision. The Nazi euthanasia program quickly expanded to include older disabled
children and adults. Hitler's decree of October, 1939, typed on his personal
stationery and back dated to Sept. 1, enlarged "the authority of certain
physicians to be designated by name in such manner that persons who, according
to human judgment, are incurable can, upon a most careful diagnosis of their
condition of sickness, be accorded a mercy death." Questionnaires were
then distributed to mental institutions, hospitals and other institutions caring
for the chronically ill. Patients had to be reported if they suffered from schizophrenia,
epilepsy, senile disorders, therapy resistant paralysis and syphilitic diseases,
retardation, encephalitis, Huntington's chorea and other neurological conditions,
also those who had been continuously in institutions for at least 5 years, or
were criminally insane, or did not posses German citizenship or were not of
German or related blood, including Jews, Negroes, and Gypsies. A total of six
killing centers were established including the well known psychiatric clinic
at Hadamar. The euthanasia program was eventually headed by an SS man named
Christian Wirth, a notorious brute with the nickname 'the savage Christian.'
At Brandenburg, a former prison was converted into a killing center where the
first Nazi experimental gassings took place. The gas chambers were disguised
as shower rooms, but were actually hermetically sealed chambers connected by
pipes to cylinders of carbon monoxide. Patients were generally drugged before
being led naked into the gas chamber. Each killing center included a crematorium
where the bodies were taken for disposal. Families were then falsely told the
cause of death was medical such as heart failure or pneumonia. But the huge
increase in the death rate for the disabled combined with the very obvious plumes
of odorous smoke over the killing centers aroused suspicion and fear. At Hadamar,
for example, local children even taunted arriving busloads of patients by saying
"here comes some more to be gassed." On August 3, 1941, a Catholic
Bishop, Clemens von Galen, delivered a sermon in Münster Cathedral attacking
the Nazi euthanasia program calling it "plain murder." The sermon
sent a shockwave through the Nazi leadership by publicly condemning the program
and urged German Catholics to "withdraw ourselves and our faithful from
their (Nazi) influence so that we may not be contaminated by their thinking
and their ungodly behavior." As a result, on August 23, Hitler suspended
Aktion T4, which had accounted for nearly a hundred thousand deaths by this
time. The Nazis retaliated against the Bishop by beheading three parish priests
who had distributed his sermon, but left the Bishop unharmed to avoid making
him into a martyr. However, the Nazi euthanasia program quietly continued, but
without the widespread gassings. Drugs and starvation were used instead and
doctors were encouraged to decide in favor of death whenever euthanasia was
being considered. The use of gas chambers at the euthanasia killing centers
ultimately served as training centers for the SS. They used the technical knowledge
and experience gained during the euthanasia program to construct huge killing
centers at Auschwitz, Treblinka and other concentration camps in an attempt
to exterminate the entire Jewish population of Europe. SS personnel from the
euthanasia killing centers, notably Wirth, Franz Reichleitner and Franz Stangl
later commanded extermination camps.
Statistics of World War II
Including the European and Pacific Theaters
Countries Total Deaths % of Prewar Population Military Deaths Civilian Deaths
USSR 20,600,000 10.4% 13,600,000 7,000,000
CHINA 10,000,000 2.0%
GERMANY 6,850,000 9.5% 3,250,000 3,600,000
POLAND 6,123,000 17.2% 123,000 6,000,000
JAPAN 2,000,000 2.7%
YUGOSLAVIA 1,706,000 10.9%
FRANCE 810,000 1.9% 340,000 470,000
GREECE 520,000 7.2%
UNITED STATES 500,000 0.4% 500,000
AUSTRIA 480,000 7.2%
ROMANIA 460,000 3.4%
HUNGARY 420,000 3.0%
ITALY 410,000 0.9% 330,000 80,000
CZECHOSLOVAKIA 400,000 2.7%
GREAT BRITAIN 388,000 0.8% 326,000 62,000
NETHERLANDS 210,000 2.4% 198,000 12,000
BELGIUM 88,000 1.1% 76,000 12,000
FINLAND 84,000 2.2%
AUSTRALIA 39,000 0.3%
CANADA 34,000 0.3%
ALBANIA 28,000 2.5%
INDIA 24,000 0.01%
NORWAY 10,262 0.3%
NEW ZEALAND 10,000 0.6%
LUXEMBOURG 5,000 1.7%
WHY: I think that the WW2 was one of the 10 most important events of the human
kind because it changed the entire course of the history.
The first TV
The first opto-mechanical system that functioned was breveted in 1884 by a
student named P. Nipkow.
The first demonstration with the television system, made by Nipkow, was made
in 1925 by the Scottish inventor that is known as the inventor of the television,
John Logie Baird, and the first demonstration with a color television was made
in 1928 by the same Scottish inventor. Baird also invented the video disk in
1928, but it was commercially available only from 1978. The video disk is a
disk with pictures and sounds recorded on it , played by laser. It is a type
of compact disk. The video disk is chiefly used to provide commercial films
for private viewing. Most systems use a 30 cm/12 in rotating vinyl disk coated
with a reflective material. Laser scanning recovers picture and sound signals
from the surface where they are recorded as a spiral of microscopic pits.
WHY: I think that the invention of the first television and the first video
disk is one of the 10 most important events of the human kind because they are
some of the most used things from our days.
The discovery of fire
Human species, origins of Evolution of humans from ancestral primates . The
African apes (gorilla and chimpanzee) are shown by anatomical and molecular
comparisons to be the closest living relatives of humans. Humans are distinguished
from apes by the size of their brain and jaw, their bipedalism, and their elaborate
culture. Molecular studies put the date of the split between the human and African
ape lines at 5-10 million years ago. There are only fragmentary remains of ape
and hominid (of the human group) fossils from this period. Bones of the earliest
known human ancestor, a hominid named Australopithecus ramidus 1994, were found
in Ethiopia and dated as 4.4 million years old.
Australopithecus afarensis , hominids found in Ethiopia and Tanzania, date from
3.5 to 4 million years ago. These creatures walked upright and they were either
direct ancestors or an offshoot of the line that led to modern humans. They
may have been the ancestors of Homo habilis (considered by some to be a species
of Australopithecus ), who appeared about a million years later, had slightly
larger bodies and brains, and were probably the first to use stone tools. A.
robustus and A. africanus also lived in Africa at the same time, but these are
not generally considered to be our ancestors.
Over 1.5 million years ago, H. erectus , believed by some to be descended from
H. habilis , appeared in Africa. The erectus people had much larger brains,
and were probably the first to use fire and the first to move out of Africa.
Their remains are found as far afield as China, Java, western Asia, Spain, Germany,
and England. Modern humans, H. sapiens sapiens , and the Neanderthals, H. sapiens
neanderthalensis , are probably descended from H. erectus . Analysis of DNA
in recent human populations shows that H. sapiens originated about 200,000 years
ago in Africa. The oldest known fossils of H. sapiens also come from Africa,
between 150,000 and 100,000 years ago. Separation of human populations occurred
later, with separation of Asian, European, and Australian populations between
100,000 and 50,000 years ago. Neanderthals were large-brained and heavily built,
probably adapted to the cold conditions of the ice ages. They lived in Europe
and the Middle East, and died out about 40,000 years ago, leaving H. sapiens
sapiens as the only remaining species of the hominid group. The most recent
fossil discovery is that of a lower jaw of a fossil ape found in the Otavi Mountains,
Namibia. It comes from deposits dated between 10 and 15 million years ago, and
it is similar to earlier finds from E Africa and Turkey. This is the first record
of a fossil ape from S Africa and it extends the known range of fossil apes
by at least 3,200 km/2,000 mi. It is thought to be close to the initial divergence
of the great apes and humans, although genetic studies indicate that the last
common ancestor between chimpanzees and humans lived 6 to 8 million years ago.
Human species, origins of A reconstruction of Java Man. This fossil dates back
to between 750,000 and 300,000 years ago. Since its discovery in the latter
half of the nineteenth century, Java Man has been shown by anthropologists to
be a human predecessor and it provides a valuable chronological marker for human
WHY: I think that the discovery of fire is one of the 10 most important events
of the human kind because it is indispensable.