Referat, comentariu, eseu, proiect, lucrare bacalaureat, liceu si facultate
Top referateAdmitereTesteUtileContact
      
    


 


Ultimele referate adaugate

Adauga referat - poti sa ne ajuti cu un referat?

Politica de confidentialitate





Ultimele referate descarcare de pe site
  CREDITUL IPOTECAR PENTRU INVESTITII IMOBILIARE (economie)
  Comertul cu amanuntul (economie)
  IDENTIFICAREA CRIMINALISTICA (drept)
  Mecanismul motor, Biela, organe mobile proiect (diverse)
  O scrisoare pierduta (romana)
  O scrisoare pierduta (romana)
  Ion DRUTA (romana)
  COMPORTAMENT PROSOCIAL-COMPORTAMENT ANTISOCIAL (psihologie)
  COMPORTAMENT PROSOCIAL-COMPORTAMENT ANTISOCIAL (psihologie)
  Starea civila (geografie)
 




Ultimele referate cautate in site
   domnisoara hus
   legume
    istoria unui galban
   metanol
   recapitulare
   profitul
   caract
   comentariu liric
   radiolocatia
   praslea cel voinic si merele da aur
 
despre:
 
Sport doping
Vizite: ? Nota: ? Ce reprezinta? Intrebari si raspunsuri
 
I.1DEFINITION

Sport doping,by legal definition, represents the use of substances (procedures)so as to modify artificially the capacities of a sportsmen ,or the products meant to hide the use of doping substances.These forbiden substances should be known by every sportsmen , by their personal doctor or that of the team. j1e9ey
The list of medecines,products,substances and forbiden procedures is approved by the Convention against doping of European Corporation and by The International Olimpic Comittee(IOC) and it contains 1379 medicins.
The subtances most used by sportsmen are the products that help the muscles to develop and the body to resist the assiduous effort.These are:the stimulatives (amphetamines, cocaine, caffeine, ephedrine)--increase the concentration ,the atention, reduce the fatigue and bring up the aggressiveness; the narcotics--used as a major analgetic; the testerone and steroids--develop the muscles and the phisic force; the diuretics--encourage the renal excretion of ion, sodium and water,and help in losing weight; the local anaesthetics--are substances that stumble over the release and the transmition of nerve impulse and help the sportsmen to get over the pain during the competition; canabis--has effects in passing over the inhibition and anxiety; the alchool; the corticoides ,the corticosteroids--are to suppress weariness,having a psycho-stimulative action; beta-blocking--regulates and slackens the cardiac rhythm, tremblings and have anti-stress effects; growing hormons (gh) and erythropoetin (epo)--help muscles and bones to develop, improve the concentration, the transport and captation of oxygen in veins; hastmatics,anphetamines etc.
But after taking bearings,the most used are the canabis(30%),the corticoids(25%),the stimulative steroids(15%),the local anaesthetics(5%).

-1 I.2.WHO USES DOPING PRODUCTS?




At the begining there were only the performer sportsmen, but nowadays those that use illegal medicins are:
-sportsmen that aren’t known and want to progress, to obtain the best results so as to gain money or to become famous;
-sportsmen belonging to big federations that had bad results because of the lack of hard training and don’t want to affect the name of the federation;
-sportsmen having failures after a competition and not being satisfied by the use of legal medicins;
-sportsmen that want better results and don’t have them only by training;
-sportsmen that complain about their results and are adviced by some doctors to use illegal producs, substances that can be easily eliminated. But these cases are limited;
-as for the age(14-65), those of 18 have the bigest tendency of doping, then those of 21, 20, followed by sportsmen of 23, 22, 17 and 26 to 30 .
-sportsmen that have good financial resources because the best doping substsnces that can’t be easely traced out are very expensive;
-sportsmen that can not afford expensive products which are easely detected.
Doping is also a social phenomenon because civil persons are wanglers between the source and the sportsmen. All over the world there are surreptitious laboratories of production and reconditionating that make these substances.The products are then sold on the Internet or in chemist’s shops from where they are bouhgt with recipes.Sometimes doctors and chemist prescribe these drugs without knowing their effects.

-2 l.3. WHY USING DOPING DRUGS ?
There are many reasons but the most important are the requests for the performance and the milieu extra sportiv.
When speaking about the exigences there are:
-the good image that sponsors want to have by financiating sportsmen;
-the financial investement of clubs in players that are expected to haVe imediate results;
-the club managers that impose sportsmen to win every competition;
-the situation of salary and medical assurance depend on sportsmen’s results;
-the overcharged agenda of players that takes the oportunity of training and recovering;
- the moral and contractual obligation to be efficient;
-the daily over-training responsable for players’s wounds;
-the dificulty of the competition;
-the request of better results made by trainers;
-the desire of young sportsmen of an imediate and successful career;
-the negative experience of some aged sportsmen;
-the lack of psychical preparation against failure.
The milieu extra sportif is the factor that influences in most of the cases the beginers.The reasons are:
-family problems like frequant conflicts, mokery of elder brothers, pressure for better results, indiference concerning
-3 sportsmen’s occupations;
-the detrimental social environement of the sportsmen.By wining he can have money, appreciation and renown;
-friends and antourage that influence the sportsmen by wickdness and encouragements having as a result personality crises;
-social isolation-no friends,no family.

II DOPING EFFECTS

ll.1.MEDICAL RISKS
Frequently used, doping substances can badly influence the sportsmen health. Repeated doses lead to death.
In this way: the stimulents affect cardiovasculaure and neurological system causing agressivity, iritability, and ethical issues; the narcotics involve lack of concentration and coordination; the testerones and steroides provoque frequent breaking of tendons and hormonic matters; the diuretics cause renal and cardiac problems; the local anaesthetics destroy local nerves; the canabis leads to the diminution of attention, concentration and motive powers; the alchool deteriorates the motory nerves bringing nervosity, agitation, trembling and loose of conscious; the corticoides and corticosteroides have as effects local and general infections and muscles ruptures; the beta-bloking implies physichal depression; GH and EPO increases the anomalous developement of organs and the obstruction of pulmonary vessels .

-4-

II.2.THE DESTRUCTION OF PUBLIC IMAGE AND MISTAKE IN JUDGEMENTS, THE LOSS OF CONFIDENCE



The sportsmen that use doping substances and are discovered could destroy their public image, being no longer the favorits of the competition.They loose the confidence of the team, the coach, the federation or club being no longer financed by their sponsors. If they are not discovered they lead to mistake in judgement taking the place of those who fairly play
II.3.ECONOMICAL DAMAGES FOR THE FEDERATION AND FOR THE STATE
The federations that are related to doping issues risk to lose important sponsors that provide them the financial resources for competitions. In exchange, sponsors want ,during the competition ,that their contribution to be rendered by renown and their image to be improved. In cases of doping the sponsors have the contractual right to withdraw, partialy or entierly, their financial support, because they don’t want to bear prejudices. Even though federations are not always involved, they have to support the consequences.
As for the state it has damages in different domaines:
-the loss of international image;
-the diminution of number of tourists especially during important competition;
-great loss of money and devices;
-the waning of comerce with sportive products;
In this way states involved in doping cases have to allot more money than necessary for tourism, sport and especially for campaigns against doping.
-5 III.THE FIGHT AGAINST DOPING
Doping is a social phenomenon that must be discouredged in order to preserve the educational values of sport. The fight is displayed on three levels: federations, organisation and state, their goal being the decrease of illegal substances’s trafic, the reinforcement of anti-doping controles, the improvement of descovery technics, the support of educational programs, the efficiency of sanctions against minor offences.
III.1.Anti-doping mesures in federations
-the sportsmen contract---compel the sportsmen to receive advices and informations about doping substances and their negative effects. The document forbids the use of drugs having as consequence the temporary or totaly breaking out of the contract;
-the list of prohibited substances and products---show to the sportsmen the products that he is not to use. It allows the verification of substances’s content making possible the avoidance of doping ;
-doping alternatives--- are made by doctors, trainors, psychologists, nutritionists who establish training stages after an initial evaluation. This procedure is repeated in order to determine the sportsmen’s way of training;
-the medical check--- decides upon the psychical, nutrititional and bodily abilities of the player. The doctor can impose the sportsmen the rythm of work and the medicins to use for the pain and resistence;
-the anti-doping control---it’s goal is to detect doped sportsmen so as to be punished. With its help the competition becomes fair and legal. These controls are spontaneous or announced and consist in taking blood semples that are analised in special laboratories;
-medical centres---they are medical clinics that fight

-6 against doping by gathering informations on addicted sportsmen and offer them counciling, treatement and psychical therapy.
III.2.STATE INVOLVEMENT IN THE FIGHT AGAINST DOPING
Generaly, the state is represented by Ministries on diferent fields ( Health, Sport, Economy and Finance, Home Affairs, Judicial). Their roles are to give laws,t o approuve of prevention movements against doping, to help financiary the federations and to materialise programs against this phenomenon.
The first laws date since 1960 and refer to consumers and providers. Nowadays, they are very strict and refer to everyone that have contact with doping products (from sportsmen and doctor to dealer and manufacturer). These laws are:


-every sportsmen that want to have a licence must first have a medical control;
-every doctor that finds samples of illegal substances on a patient is obliged to anounce the authorities and to refuse the medical visa;
-every sportsmen who want to participate to a competition must have a medical certificate that allow him the presence;
-federations must avoy over-charged trainings and program, and must dispose of medical assistance;
-every sportsmen is oblidged to have at least 3 medical controls yearly;
-the offer, the application or prescription of illegal products by doctors or chemists are totaly prohibited;
-doctors charged with medical anti-doping check can always achieve spontaneous controls during training or competition;

-7 -providers and dealers of doping products are punished with fines and jail;
-every doctor must informe his patient on medical and moral risk that doping brings.
If one of these laws is broken the guilty man is punished by the federation when it is a disciplinary sanction and by the state when it is a criminal sanction.
Disciplinary sanctions reffer to doped sportsmen by ignorance or sportsmen that refuse to have their medical checking and dealers from inside the federation. The sancions are- temporary or definitive interdiction to participate to competition or organise them.
Criminal sanction are applied to dealers and manufacturers and are given by a judge.These are:
-fines that double if the sportsmen is a minor;
-jail from 3 months to 5 years;penalty doubles if dealers belong to organized bands;
-shutting of sportive the institution where the case took place;
-confiscation of doping products;
-the interdiction of practising public fonctions and professional activity.
State sustain the fight against doping also by according financial resources to prevention actions, to federations for frequent medical anti-doping controls, to laboratories for necessary materials and to oganisations far programs.

-8 III.3.NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FIGHTING AGAINST DOPING

Almost every country has an independent administrative authority charged to fight agains doping.T hese organisations eliberate reports of medical checks, gather every information concerning doping tratement in an anonymous way. They can sanction sportsmen and federations ,they initiate reforms in this domain. These authorities lead anti-doping programs in schools, in press, on the street. They are responsable of civil education regarding the use of illegal substances.
Others Organisations (YAADIS-Young Athleets Agains DopingIn Sport, International Intergovernement Consultative GroupOf Anti-doping In Sport) operate on limited territories (neighbourhoods, clubs, schools, universities). The initiators are students, sport teachers, unsatisfied parents, public personalities, sport stars. Their programs are displayed on the streets by protests, posters, folders and an intense mediation. They militate for the distruction of this phenomenon. The money are given by the state, sponsors, charity actions and charity performance.

CONCLUSION

Doping is an international problem that affects every country that has representatives in sport.That is why authorities and organisations fight continously agains it.It has become a social issue because it attires consequences in tourism comerce,international image and prestige.The personal desire of some sportsmen to win no matter what changed the educational,competitive and spectacular role of sport.This is the reason for wich every man should have a proper education on life’s values.






Comentarii:

Nu ai gasit ce cautai? Crezi ca ceva ne lipseste? Lasa-ti comentariul si incercam sa te ajutam.
Esti satisfacut de calitarea acestui referat, eseu, cometariu? Apreciem aprecierile voastre.

Nume (obligatoriu):

Email (obligatoriu, nu va fi publicat):

Site URL (optional):


Comentariile tale: (NO HTML)


Noteaza referatul:
In prezent referatul este notat cu: ? (media unui numar de ? de note primite).

2345678910

 
Copyright 2005 - 2021 | Trimite referat | Harta site | Adauga in favorite