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| • CREDITUL IPOTECAR PENTRU INVESTITII IMOBILIARE (economie)|
• Comertul cu amanuntul (economie)
• IDENTIFICAREA CRIMINALISTICA (drept)
• Mecanismul motor, Biela, organe mobile proiect (diverse)
• O scrisoare pierduta (romana)
• O scrisoare pierduta (romana)
• Ion DRUTA (romana)
• COMPORTAMENT PROSOCIAL-COMPORTAMENT ANTISOCIAL (psihologie)
• COMPORTAMENT PROSOCIAL-COMPORTAMENT ANTISOCIAL (psihologie)
• Starea civila (geografie)
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Romania, country in southeastern Europe. Romania is rich in culture and natural
resources, but it has long been one of Europe’s poorest and least developed
nations. Foreign powers, including the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires,
controlled the country or parts of it for much of its history. Bucharest is
its capital and largest city. t7i16ik
Romania has a total land area of 237,500 sq km (91,700 sq mi). The country
is bounded on the north by Ukraine, on the east by Moldova, on the southeast
by the Black Sea, on the south by Bulgaria, on the southwest by the Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), and on the west by Hungary. Romania is roughly
oval in shape, with a maximum distance from east to west of 720 km (450 mi)
and a maximum distance from north to south of 515 km (320 mi). A long chain
of mountain ranges curves through northern and central Romania. The Danube River
forms much of the country’s southern and southwestern borders with Bulgaria
and the FRY, and the Prut River divides Romania from its northeastern neighbor
The most important river of Romania is the Danube. Its lower course forms
a delta that covers much of northeastern Dobruja. Most of Romania’s major
rivers are part of the Danube system; these include the Mures, the Somes, the
Olt, the Prut, and the Siret. Romania has many small, freshwater mountain lakes,
but the largest lakes are saline lagoons on the coast of the Black Sea; the
largest of these is Lake Razelm.
III THE PEOPLE OF ROMANIA
A Population and Settlement
Romanian culture is largely derived from the Roman, with strains of Slavic,
Magyar (Hungarian), Greek, and Turkish influence. Poems, folktales, and folk
music have always held a central place in Romanian culture. Romanian literature,
art, and music attained maturity in the 19th century. Although Romania has been
influenced by divergent Western trends, it also has a rich native culture.
Before World War II, the Romanian economy was primarily agricultural. In 1948
the Communist government came to power and took control of nearly all aspects
of the economy. Through a series of five-year plans, the Communists transformed
Romania into an industrial nation. The economy grew considerably during the
first part of the Communist period, but by the 1980s it had slid into decline,
and shortages of consumer goods and degradation of the environment had become
widespread. After the Communist government was overthrown in 1989, the Romanian
economy virtually collapsed. Although dominated by former Communists, the new
government began taking steps to reform the economy in the early 1990s. These
steps included devaluing the national currency, removing government subsidies
on most consumer goods, and converting some state-owned companies to private
Romania is currently a member of the IMF, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Romania became an associate member of the European Union (EU) in February 1993, and in December 1997 the EU invited Romania to begin the process of becoming a full member. No timetable was established at that time for when it would join. A free trade agreement with the European Free Trade Association went into effect in May 1993.
Unemployment has been a significant problem in Romania since the collapse of Communism in 1989; 10.8 percent of the population was unemployed in 2000. Some 42 percent of the labor force is employed in agriculture, forestry, or fishing; 28 percent in manufacturing, mining, or construction; and 31 percent in services.
22 percent of the working population belongs to one of a number of new trade
organizations in Romania.
The Supreme Court is Romania’s highest judicial authority. Its members
are appointed by the president at the proposal of the Superior Council of Magistrates.
In each of Romania’s 40 counties and in the special district of Bucharest
there is a county court and several lower courts, or courts of first instance.
The country also has 15 circuits of appellate courts, in which appeals against
sentences passed by local courts are heard; there is a right of appeal from
the appellate courts to the Supreme Court. Romania has a Constitutional Court,
charged with ensuring a balance of power among the organs of government. The
procurator-general is the highest judicial official in Romania, and is responsible
to the National Assembly, which appoints him or her for a four-year term. The
death penalty was abolished in December 1989 and is forbidden by the 1991 constitution.
E Local Government
Romania is divided into 40 counties and the municipality of Bucharest. Each unit has its own local government, as do cities, towns, and communes (rural areas), within each county.
F Social Services
Romania has a comprehensive social insurance system that includes ... vacations at health resorts.
Romania has a comprehensive social insurance system that includes medical care, family allowances, retirement pensions, and vacations at health resorts. After the revolution of 1989, Romania’s poor health conditions were brought to light. International attention was focused particularly on Romanian orphanages containing large numbers of neglected children, many whom were found to be suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis, and other serious illnesses. In the mid-1990s Romania had one of the highest infant mortality rates in Europe. The World Bank has granted loans to the Romanian government to help improve the country’s health-care system.
In 2001 the total strength of Romania’s armed forces was 103,000 members. In addition to centrally controlled units, the armed forces consisted of 52,900 in the army, 18,900 in the air force, and 10,200 in the navy. Military service is compulsory for all men and lasts for a period of 12 months in the army and air force and 18 months in the navy. The Securitate (secret police force), loyal to Ceausescu, was disbanded in 1990 and replaced by the Romanian Intelligence Service.
H International Organizations
Romania is a member of the United Nations (UN) and the Council of Europe (CE). In January 1994 it joined the Partnership for Peace program as a precursor to eventual membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
The territory that is now Romania first appeared in history as Dacia. Most of its inhabitants were originally from the region of Thrace, in Greece; they were called Getae by the Greeks, and later, by the Romans, they were known as Dacians. Between ad 101 and 106 Dacia was conquered by Roman emperor Trajan and incorporated into the Roman Empire as a province. Roman colonists were sent into Dacia, and Rome developed the region considerably, building roads, bridges, and a great wall that stretched from what is today the Black Sea port of Constanta across the region of Dobruja to the Danube River.
In the middle part of the 3rd century the Goths drove the Romans out of much of Dacia. In about 270 Roman Emperor Lucius Domitius Aurelian decided to withdraw the Roman legions and colonies to an area south of the Danube; some Roman civilians chose to stay, however. Under the influence of the Romans, the people of Dacia adopted the Latin language.
For the next thousand years, the Daco-Roman people were subjected to successive invasions by the Huns, Avars, Slavs, and Bulgars. Slavs brought Christianity to the region in the 4th century, and through intermarriage and assimilation, changed the ethnic balance in Romania. Its inhabitants developed into a distinct ethnic group, known as the Vlachs, a name designating Latin-speakers of the Balkan Peninsula. In the 9th century the Eastern Orthodox form of Christianity was introduced by the Bulgars.
In 1003 King Stephen I of Hungary established control over most of the region of Transylvania in what is now central and northwestern Romania. In the 13th century King Béla IV of Hungary brought Saxons and other Germanic tribes into Transylvania to strengthen Hungary’s position there. In the middle of the 13th century Hungarian expansion drove many Vlachs to settle south and east of the Carpathian Mountains. There they established the principality of Walachia, and later that of Moldavia. Each was ruled by a succession of voivodes (native princes), who were generally under the authority of either Hungary or Poland. Until the 19th century the history of Romania was that of the separate principalities of Walachia and Moldavia.
Michael the Brave Michael the Brave, ruler of Walachia from 1593 to 1601, is the national hero of Romania. He led a revolt against the Ottoman Empire in 1599 and united Walachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania. He was assassinated in 1601 on orders of a Habsburg general who sought Habsburg domination of Transylvania.Hulton Getty/Archive Photos
During the 13th and 14th centuries, Walachia was involved in frequent struggles against Hungary. In the 15th century the rulers of the Ottoman Empire began to extend their conquests northward. Walachia was forced to capitulate to the Ottomans, although its leadership, territory, and religion were not changed. Direct Ottoman rule was not felt in Walachia until after the Ottomans defeated the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohacs in 1526.
At the end of the 16th century, a Walachian voivode, Michael the Brave, led a revolt against the Ottomans.
At the end of the 16th century, a Walachian voivode, Michael the Brave, led a revolt against the Ottomans and succeeded in bringing Walachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania under his rule for a very brief period. Michael is the national hero of Romania for his part in this uprising and for being the first to combine the three territories that were to form Romania. After Michael’s defeat and death in 1601, the Hungarians ruled over Transylvania and the Ottomans regained control of Moldavia and Walachia. Until 1821 the ruling families were often of Greek origin. Known as hospodars, they were chosen from the Phanar district of Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) by the Ottoman sultan. The period of Phanariot rule was one of the most oppressive and corrupt in Romanian history. Exploitation of the peasants caused mass starvation and emigration.
The history of Moldavia followed a course similar to that of Walachia. The Moldavians were subjected first to Hungarian and then to Polish rule before the Ottomans established a firm hold over the region shortly after their conquest of Walachia. The reign of Moldavia’s national hero Stephen the Great, which lasted from 1457 until 1504, was marked by futile attempts to gain united support from Poland, Hungary, and Venice against the Ottomans. As in Walachia, the Ottomans introduced Phanariot rule, with the same disastrous results.
C Russian Domination
By the early 1700s the power of the Ottoman Empire was declining. In the later 18th century Catherine the Great of Russia, who had sought Romanian support against the Ottomans, declared Russia the protector of all Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire and brought Moldavia and Walachia under Russia’s sphere of influence. In 1821 Tudor Vladimirescu, a Romanian officer in the Russian army, led a nationalist revolt resulting in the replacement of Phanariot rule with that of native Romanian princes in Moldavia and Walachia. However, Russia obtained concessions in Romania as a result of the Russo-Turkish wars. By the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest (1812), Russia annexed the region of Bessarabia (Bessarabiya) from Moldavia. The Treaty of Adrianople (1829) gave Russia a virtual protectorate over Moldavia and Walachia. A Russian-sponsored constitution gave power to the native princes and landowners of Moldavia and Walachia. Creation of the same governmental structure for both principalities facilitated their later union.
D The Struggle for Independence
Alexandru Cuza Alexandru Cuza was the ruler of Romania from 1859 to 1866. He was the first ruler of the modern country. His attempts at land reforms led the local landowners to force him to abdicate.Archivo Iconografico, S.A./Corbis
By the mid-1800s a unification movement had gathered strength in Moldavia and Walachia. The movement produced local uprisings that were suppressed by the combined action of Ottoman and Russian troops. The Treaty of Paris of 1856, which ended the Crimean War between the Ottoman Empire and Russia, established Moldavia and Walachia as principalities that would continue to pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire. Russia was obliged to return southern Bessarabia to Moldavia. In 1857 the councils of Moldavia and Walachia voted for union under the name Romania, with a hereditary prince, autonomy, and neutrality. Alexandru Ion Cuza was elected prince in January 1859.
In May 1864 a new constitution of Romania was adopted, establishing a bicameral national legislature. In the same year, Prince Alexandru Ion I freed the peasants from their feudal burdens. His attempts at reform led to his removal by local landowners in 1866. A German prince, under the name of Carol I, was elected to replace him, and a new constitution gave Carol veto power over all legislation. The long period of Carol’s reign (prince, 1866-1881; king, 1881-1914) saw great economic expansion but few political rights for the Romanian people. The last traces of Ottoman rule, which had lasted for nearly 500 years, finally disappeared as a result of a Russian-Romanian victory over the Ottomans in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 and 1878.
E The Kingdom of Romania
The full independence of Romania was recognized in 1878 by the Congress of Berlin, which also restored southern Bessarabia to Russia. As compensation, Romania accepted northern Dobruja from Bulgaria. Carol I was crowned king in 1881 and won the recognition of the major European powers.
Political corruption, continual foreign intervention, and the need for land reform continued. Two Balkan Wars, arising from the collapse of Ottoman power in Europe, were fought in 1912 and 1913. Romania entered the second Balkan War and annexed the southern part of Dobruja from Bulgaria. King Carol died in 1914 and was succeeded by his nephew, Ferdinand I.
F Greater Romania
When World War I broke out in 1914, Romania declared a policy of armed neutrality.
When World War I broke out in 1914, Romania declared a policy of armed neutrality. However, in August 1916, Romania joined the Allies in their fight against the Central Powers, chiefly Austria-Hungary and Germany. Romania hoped to gain several provinces of Austria-Hungary that had large Romanian populations. The Allies won the war in 1918, and as part of the peace settlement, Romania acquired Transylvania, part of the Banat, and the Crisana-Maramures region from Hungary, Bukovina from Austria, and Bessarabia from Russia. Romania emerged from the war having almost doubled its area and population.
During the 1920s, Romania had a parliamentary regime and a prosperous economy. Land reform broke up many large estates. However, friction between ethnic minorities, many of them living in territories ceded to Romania after World War I, caused instability. King Ferdinand’s reign ended with his death in 1927, but his son, Crown Prince Carol, renounced the throne in favor of his own son Michael.
G The Rise of Fascism
By the terms of the armistice agreement, Romania lost northern Bukovina and Bessarabia to the USSR and recovered northern Transylvania from Hungary. The agreement also limited the strength of the Romanian armed forces and stipulated that the Romanian people should enjoy all personal liberties. On December 30, 1947, the monarchy was abolished, and King Michael was forced to abdicate. The People’s Republic of Romania was then proclaimed, with a constitution similar to that of the USSR, and power passed to the Communist Party.
In 1948 and 1949 Romanian cultural and political institutions were reorganized to conform with Soviet models. This process, known as Sovietization, also included frequent purges of dissidents (political protestors). In 1949 the United States and the United Kingdom twice accused Romania of systematically violating the human rights provisions in the post-World War II peace treaty. In November 1950 this charge was upheld by the United Nations General Assembly. New constitutions adopted in 1952 and 1965 were both patterned after the Soviet Communist government. Throughout the postwar period Romania’s leadership remained stable. Gheorghe Gheorgiu-Dej, head of the Communist Party since 1945, replaced Groza as premier.
J An Independent Regime
After the death of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, Romania gradually drew away from close dependence on the USSR. Gheorgiu-Dej asserted the country’s right to develop its own variety of socialism. Throughout the 1950s the government emphasized the nationalization and development of industry. This effort proved highly successful, and in the 1960s official estimates of the national industrial growth rate averaged about 12 percent annually, ranking among the highest in Eastern Europe. The collectivization of agriculture began in July 1949, and in 1962 the government announced that all arable land had been absorbed into the socialized sector. Farmers were permitted, however, to retain small plots for private use.
In the early postwar years, under Soviet domination, Romania cooperated fully in such Communist organizations as Cominform, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), and after 1955, the Warsaw Pact. From the early 1960s on, however, Romania began to exercise a considerable degree of independence. In 1963 the government rejected COMECON plans for the integration of the economies of the Communist states, chiefly because the plans restricted Romania to a role as supplier of oil, grains, and primary materials. Romanians thought these plans would hinder their rate of industrial growth, which had been higher in the several years prior than that of any other Soviet-bloc country. Romanian protests gained some concessions in the form of Soviet aid for the development of a major steel plant at Galati. The rift between the USSR and China in the 1960s gave Romania new opportunities to throw off Soviet influence. A party statement in 1964 confirmed Romania’s independent policies, including closer ties with the West.
In 1965 Gheorgiu-Dej, party chief for most of 20 years, died and was succeeded by Nicolae Ceausescu. In 1967 Ceausescu also became president of the state council. He advanced Romania’s nationalist policies and renamed the country the Socialist Republic of Romania. A new constitution in 1965 downgraded the USSR’s role in Romanian history. The country did not follow the Soviet bloc in breaking diplomatic ties with Israel after the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, or in invading Czechoslovakia in 1968.
At home, the Communist government held sole power, censored the press, and restricted personal liberties. Ceausescu promoted a personality cult around himself and his family. Improved relations with China and Western Europe brought aid and new technology, and the economy grew substantially in the 1960s and 1970s.
Romania continued to pursue an independent foreign policy, despite the disapproval of the Soviet bloc. In addition, the Romanian government actively increased its contacts with the West. After a visit from United States president Richard Nixon in 1969, Ceausescu paid several visits to the United States. In 1975 the United States granted Romania most-favored-nation status, and in 1976 a ten-year economic pact was signed by the two countries. Romania joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) in 1972 and in 1976 signed the first formal pact (on textiles) between the European Economic Community and an Eastern European nation.
As the leader of the only Eastern European country to recognize both Israel and Egypt, Ceausescu helped arrange Egyptian president Anwar al-Sadat’s historic peacemaking visit to Israel in 1977. Romania signed a friendship treaty with the USSR in 1970, received Soviet Communist Party chief Leonid Brezhnev in 1976, and sent Ceausescu to the USSR and East Germany. Romania also signed a treaty of friendship with Hungary in 1972 and agreements on hydroelectricity with Yugoslavia in 1976 and Bulgaria in 1977. Taking an unprecedented step outside the Soviet bloc, Ceausescu visited the People’s Republic of China in 1971, subsequently signing economic and air transport agreements. In 1980 he refused to endorse the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
Although diplomatic in matters of foreign policy, Ceausescu strictly enforced Communist orthodoxy in domestic affairs. In 1971 he cracked down on all deviation in party, government, and cultural leadership. He was reelected head of state in 1975, and the party and government were reorganized in 1977. Despite enormous damage caused by severe floods and an earthquake, the economy grew during the 1970s, especially heavy industry and foreign trade. However, repression, pollution, and mismanagement of agriculture gradually discredited the government. In the 1980s Ceausescu used virtually all of Romania’s foreign currency reserves to pay off the foreign debt, producing major food and fuel shortages in a country whose standard of living was already among the lowest in Europe. A forced resettlement program announced in 1988, which called for the destruction of up to 8,000 villages, was also widely unpopular.
K The Regime Changes
Demonstration for Democracy Romania’s antigovernment demonstrations of December 16 to 22, 1989, brought an end to the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceausescu when the army joined the uprising. Before the month’s end, Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, were captured, tried, and executed.Francis Apesteguy/Liaison Agency
In 1989 Ceausescu’s brutal suppression of antigovernment demonstrations in Timisoara turned the army against him. He fled Bucharest with his wife, Elena, on December 22, 1989, but the two were soon captured. Ceausescu and his wife were charged with murder and embezzlement of government funds, and a secret trial took place. Both were found guilty and were executed on December 25. An interim body made up chiefly of former Communist officials took control of the government, and Ion Iliescu became the country’s acting president. The new government revoked many of Ceausescu’s repressive policies and imprisoned some of the leaders of his regime.
In May 1990 multiparty elections for the legislature and the presidency were held. Iliescu was elected president, and his party, the National Salvation Front (NSF), won control of the legislature. Peter Roman became Romania’s prime minister. The elections did not put a stop to the antigovernment demonstrations, which continued throughout the year, often in protest of economic conditions. Riots by miners led to the resignation of Roman’s government in September. In October former finance minister Theodor Stolojan succeeded Roman as prime minister and formed a new cabinet. An economic austerity program was introduced that month.
L Recent Developments
In December 1991 a new democratic constitution was adopted by popular referendum. Presidential and legislative elections were held in September 1992 with a runoff presidential contest in October. Iliescu was reelected president, while the Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF), a party that emerged from the breakup of the NSF, won the largest representation in the legislature and formed a coalition government. Iliescu appointed economist Nicolae Vacaroiu to head the government as prime minister. In 1993 the DNSF merged with several smaller parties and changed its name to the Party of Social Democracy of Romania (PSDR). During 1994 nationalist parties gained increasing influence in the Romanian government.
Romania experienced significant ethnic turmoil in the early 1990s. Attacks against Roma (Gypsies) in 1991 resulted in an exodus of Roma to Germany. However, in September 1992 the German government returned 43,000 refugees to Romania, more than half of them Roma. Relations with Hungary were strained as a result of clashes between ethnic Hungarians and Romanian nationalists in Transylvania. In 1993 the Romanian government expanded the educational and linguistic rights of ethnic Germans and Hungarians within its borders. In 1994 Romania hosted an international conference on the status of ethnic minorities in Central Europe. However, disagreements over the rights of ethnic minorities in Romania continued to be a problem. In June 1995 the Romanian parliament enacted a law that denied ethnic minorities the right to higher education in their native language in many subjects. Thousands of ethnic Hungarians protested against the legislation. In September 1996 the leaders of Romania and Hungary signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation that guaranteed the rights of ethnic minority groups.
In the 1990s Romania’s foreign affairs were focused primarily on relations with Western Europe. Romania became an associate member of the European Union in 1993 and formally applied for full membership in 1995. Romania also joined the Partnership for Peace program of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1994 and is currently seeking full NATO membership.
Presidential and legislative elections held in November 1996 marked Romania’s first peaceful transfer of power. The ruling coalition headed by the PSDR lost its majority in parliament to opposition parties. The Democratic Convention of Romania (DCR), a coalition of six opposition parties, joined with another opposition grouping, the Social Democratic Union (SDU), in a governing coalition, forming Romania’s first staunchly anti-Communist majority in the legislature. The DCR’s presidential candidate, reform-minded academic Emil Constantinescu, defeated Iliescu in the runoff presidential elections held November 17. Constantinescu named a popular DCR politician, Bucharest mayor Victor Ciorbea, as the new prime minister.
The new government pledged to implement a comprehensive plan of economic reform in an attempt to counter Romania’s seven years of lackluster progress toward a free-market economy. Also during this time, the government pursued a highly publicized and rigorous campaign against crime and corruption. Constantinescu symbolically broke with former policy by lifting a ban on visits into the country by Romania’s former monarch, King Michael, who was deposed during the Communist takeover.
In 1997 Romania’s diplomatic relations with its neighbors improved dramatically. Efforts to reconcile centuries of distrust with Hungary brought an unprecedented visit to Romania by a Hungarian head of state, President Arpad Göncz, in late May. In early June the presidents of Ukraine and Romania signed a friendship treaty that ended a decades-old territorial dispute over a fuel-rich island located near the coasts of both countries in the Black Sea.
However, for all of its success internationally, Ciorbea’s government struggled domestically to continue the process of economic reform. In 1997 inflation soared, state-owned companies and utilities with bloated payrolls were not streamlined, and a promised sale of the state banks never occurred. The SDU defected from Ciorbea’s coalition in parliament in January 1998, and in March Ciorbea was forced to resign. Radu Vasile, from the DCR, was appointed in April to succeed him, and the SDU rejoined the ruling coalition. Upon taking office, Vasile promised to move ahead with privatization. Vasile’s government planned to close more than 150 unprofitable factories and mines. In January 1999 about 10,000 striking coal miners marched on Bucharest to protest mine closures and to demand a major wage increase. The miners marched for five days until they dispersed after the government deployed army and special police forces. Vasile also agreed to substantially increase wages and reopen some mines. Vasile’s government collapsed in December 1999 when several cabinet ministers withdrew their support for him and resigned. Constantinescu then dismissed Vasile, but Vasile refused to go, claiming the president’s action was illegal. However, intense political pressure led Vasile to resign, and Constantinescu named National Bank governor Mugur Isarescu to succeed him.
In parliamentary elections in November 2000 the PSDR won the greatest number of seats (but not a majority). In presidential elections in the same month Iliescu finished first, with 37 percent of the vote, and Corneliu Vadim Tudor, leader of the far-right Greater Romania Party, came in second. Iliescu won the runoff election in December, garnering 67 percent of the votes cast. The PSDR decided to form a minority government, rather than trying to put together a coalition cabinet. Adrian Nastase, first vice president of the PSDR, was named prime minister.
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