Europe Unification isn’t an artificial work, made only by technocrats;
it is the fruit of a political decision which is supported by long intellectual,
moral and spiritual traditions. p8f9ff
In 1950, May the 9th, Robert Schuman, the French Minister of the Foreign Affairs
announced that France proposes the creation of a Coal and Steel European Community
(CECO). Later, this announcement were called “Schuman Declaration”,
and it was the fundamental stone of a European construction.
The Declaration is based on four key elements and which represent the essence
of European construction: a) The guarantee of a political peace and of economical reconstructions. b) Common actions of France and Germany; historical reconciliation. c) The guarantee of cooperation between European countries. d) The interests unification of European people.
The first principle refferes to the importance of the common institutions and
of the rulers which govern them for the guarantee of political peace and economical
Nowadays, Europe has got a active Parlament, democratic elected, a Commision,
a Ministers Council which take common decisions for all the citizens and a Justice
The contribution, which can bring an organized and functional Europe to the
civilization is indispensable for the mention of the peace relations.
The second principle reflects the necessity to combine an ambitions vision with
a pragmatic and gradual progress.
The essence of the political message consists of reconciliation spirit between
the former enemies France and Germany, and the common objective of the six founder
members of CECO: the construction of an Europe of peace.
The third principle is the recognize of the fact that the process of European
integration must be open, through the guarantee of cooperation between European
The fourth principle affirms that the European people represents more than a
simple common market; they form a community of interests.
The Institutions of European Union consists of : a) European Council is the name given to the high level meetings of a leader
of the Union members which take place beginning with the 1975, twice a year.
The Maastricht Treatment officialized the role of the European Counsil to define
general directions of the political actions. At the meeting participate the
leader of the country and of the govern from the members countries, assisted
by foreign ministers and the president of the European Comunitee. b) Ministers Council consist of the ministers of the members countries which
are responsible for a certain field.
For example the ministers of agriculture will participate to the meetings where
they discussed agricultural problems, the transport ministers will discussed
transport problems. Each country has got a single representative, so to the
Council participate 15 persons. The Reunions take place, usually to Bruxelles.
The reunions from April, June and October take place to Luxemburg. The Council
is the main organ in taking decisions. It coordonate general economical politics
in European Union and define the operations of the Commission general management.
Each member state hold the Presedency of the Council for six months. The Presedency
of the Minister Council changes twice a year (in January and in July). From
1999 the order is :Finland, Portugal, France, Sweden, Belgium, Spain, Denmark,
Greece. The country which hold the Presedency of the Council house the European
Council meeting and preside the Council meetings.
The representatives of the state which hold the Presedency become for six months
the representative of the Union in the relations with the other institutions
of the Union and with non- members countries. The country which holds the Presedency
organizes and orders the priorities and decides the comunitar politics.
Troika of the European Union consists of the Minister in fonction for the Presedency
before and the one who follows to holds it. The third Ministers act as a team
in the negations which they carry on. The decisions are taken with unanimity,qualified
majority and simply majority.
The vote in unanimity is used when new members are received, constitutional
affairs, and penalty of the treaties. The vote with qualified majority is used
in the most of the situations.each country gives a certain number of votes,
depending on number of population. The vote with simple majority, calculated
in raport with the number of the Council members, is used for the Council deliberates.
The Council is supported by a secretary formed by 2000 persons, among them 400
are translators and interpreters and different committee as COREPER.
Permanentely Representative Committee is the organ which prepare the Council
meeting. It consists of ambassadors of the member states and their counselor. c) European Commission is the executive organ of the European Union. It consists
of 20 commissaries (two for France,Italy, Spain, Great Britain, Germany and
one from the other states.) The commissary is elected for five year. The Commission
has got the following attributions:
1) to guarantee the respectation of the comunitar legislations. And when the
member states don’t respect it they can bring the member states in front
of the Justice Court.
2) to initiate comunitar legislation.
3) to act as mediator when between countries appear some kind of problems.
The Commission is ruled by a president, who is one of the commissaries. Each
commissary is responsible for a certain activity field. d) European Parliament is legislative organism. From 1970 it has its own budget.
It has the right of Veto against the Comission. It has 626 elected members for
five years. The biggest member of europarlamentarians are those of Germany (99),
then France, Italy and Great Britain(87) e) European Justice Court was founded through “The Treaty from Rome”.
It is placed in Luxembourg. It consists of 13 lawyers assisted by 6 general
advocates. A lawyer is elected for 6 years and a president elected for 3 years.
It is the supreme autority of the Union. f) The Accounts Court was founded in 1977 by the decision of “The Treaty
from Bruxelles”. It consists of 15 representatives of the member states
for 6 years. They elect their president through secret vote. Their attribution
is to check the legality of the budget and the expenditure of it. g) European Investments Bank is the banking institution of the European Union,
which gives money for the Union projects. It is one of the most important bank
in the world. h) European Central Investments Bank is the institution which realizes the monetary
politics of the European Union. It guarantee the stability of the prices, the
emission of the unic currency.