Cloning is a very controversial theme. It is considered by many people and nations
as an immoral practice, a bad appendix of science. Cloning does violate the laws
of nature, because we are the ones that manipulate it. It interferes with the
natural and common reproduction. But we have to consider another point of view.
What will happen to the people who can't procreate by the traditional way, nature's
way? Don't they have the same rights with us to become happy, to fulfill their
wishes of becoming a father or a mother? How can we stop people from practicing
the universal right of searching for happiness? If we do it, we would be selfish.
That's why cloning could be a solution to that dilemma. f3d14dq
We should proceed this debate with the history of cloning. The modern era of laboratory
cloning began in 1958 when F.C. Steward cloned carrot plants from mature single
cells placed in a nutrient culture containing hormones. The first cloning of animal
cells took place in 1964. John B. Gurdon took the nuclei from tadpoles and injected
them into unfertilized eggs. The nuclei containing the original parents' genetic
information had been destroyed with ultraviolet light. When the eggs were incubated,
Gurdon discovered that only 1% to 2% of the eggs had developed into fertile adult
toads. The first successful cloning of mammal was achieved nearly twenty years
later. Scientists from Switzerland and the U.S successfully cloned mice using
a method similar to Gurdon's. In 1993 the first human embryos were cloned using
a technique that placed individual embryonic cells in a nutrient culture where
the cells then divided into 48 new embryos. These fertilized eggs did not develop
to a stage that could be used for transplantation into a human uterus.
WHAT IS CLONING?
Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact copy of another. There
are different types of cloning. A basic understanding of the different types of
is the key to taking an informed stance on current public policy issues and making
the best personal decisions.
WHAT IS A CLONE?
As per biology, a clone is a cell or an organism that is genetically identical
to another cell or organism. Many simple organisms such as bacteria reproduce
themselves by copying their DNA and splitting in half. The two bacteria that
result from this form of asexual reproduction are genetically similar, they
are clones of each other. In contrast, during the process of sexual reproduction,
the nucleus of a sperm cell, which carries the father's DNA, fuses with the
nucleus of an egg cell, which contains the mother's DNA. The resulting offspring
carry genetic material from both parents and are not identical to either parent.
The verb ''to clone'' refers to the process of creating cloned cells or organisms.
The process differs, depending on the kinds of cells used in the cloning procedure
and the desired result. Usually, when scientists clone an animal, they take
the nucleus of a cell (which contains chromosomes made of deoxyribonucleic acid-DNA
and proteins) and place it into an egg cell (also called oocyte) from which
the nucleus had been removed. The egg cell then divides to produce an embryo
that develops into an animal, if the procedures work as planned.
WHAT IS HUMAN CLONING?
A "human clone" is a time-delayed identical twin of another person.
A clone is not an exact replica of the original, but just a much younger identical
twin. As with identical twins, the clone and the original being will have different
set of fingerprints. Ever since Dolly's (the cloned sheep) birth in 1997 shocked
an unexpecting world, Governments have been busy trying to prevent the advent
of human cloning.
There is also the fear that someone would create armies of soldiers or even
produce large amounts of workers. This could create lower class for clones and
A "black market" of fetuses could arise from desirable donors that
will want to clone themselves, i.e.: athletes, film stars, scientists and others.
Technology is not fully developed. It has a low fertility rate. In cloning Dolly,
277 eggs were used, 30 started to divide, 9 induced pregnancy, and only one
survived to term (Nash).
Clones may be treated as second-class citizens. Human cloning would bring grave
risks of abuses to human dignity and exploitation by unscrupulous people.
Unknown psychosocial harms with impacts on the family and society. Many see
this as a violation of the uniqueness of a human life, which God has given to
each of us and to no one else.
WHAT IS CLONING? ARE THERE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CLONING?
When the media report on cloning in the news, they are usually talking about
only one type called reproductive cloning. There are different types of cloning
however, and cloning technologies can be used for other purposes besides producing
the genetic twin of another organism. A basic understanding of the different
types of cloning is the key to taking an informed stance on current public policy
issues and making the best possible personal decisions. The following three
types of cloning will be discussed: (1) recombinant DNA technology or DNA cloning,
(2) reproductive cloning, and (3) therapeutic cloning.
(1) Recombinant DNA Technology or DNA Cloning
The terms "recombinant DNA technology", "DNA cloning", "molecular
cloning" or "gene cloning" all refer to the same process the
transfer of DNA fragment of interest from one organism to a self-replicating
genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid. The DNA of interest can then be
propagated in a foreign host cell. This technology has been around since the
1970s, and it has become a common practice in molecular biology labs today.
Scientists studying a particular gene often use bacterial plasmids to generate
multiple copies of the same gene. Plasmids are self-replicating extra-chromosomal
circular DNA molecules, distinct from the normal bacterial genome. Plasmids
and other types of cloning vectors are used by Human Genome Project researchers
to copy genes and other pieces of chromosomes to generate enough identical material
for further study.
To "clone a gene" a DNA fragment containing the gene of interest is
isolated from chromosomal DNA using restriction enzymes and then united with
a plasmid that has been cut with the same restriction enzymes. When the fragment
of chromosomal DNA is joined with its cloning vector in the lab it is called
a "recombinant DNA molecule". Following introduction into suitable
host cells the recombinant DNA can then be reduced along with the host cell
DNA. Bacteria are most often used as the host cells for recombinant DNA molecules
but yeast and mammalian cells are also used.
(2) Reproductive Cloning
Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the
same unclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. Dolly was
created by reproductive cloning technology. In a process called "somatic
cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT), scientists transfer genetic material from
the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg whose nucleus, and thus its genetic
material has been removed. The reconstructed egg containing the DNA from a donor
cell must be treated with chemicals or electric current in order to stimulate
cell division. Once the cloned embryo reaches a suitable stage, it is transferred
to the uterus of a female host where it continues to develop until birth.
Dolly or any another animal created using nuclear transfer technology is not
truly an identical clone of the donor animal. Only the clone's chromosomal or
nuclear DNA is the same as the donor. Some of the clone's genetic materials
come from the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the enucleated egg. Mitochondria,
which are organelles that serve as power sources to the cell, containing their
own short segments of DNA. Acquired mutations in mitochondrial DNA are believed
to play an important role in the aging process.
Dolly's success is truly remarkable because it proved that the genetic material
from a specialized adult cell, such as an udder cell programmed to express only
those genes needed by udder cells, could be reprogrammed to generate an entire
new organism. Before this demonstration, scientists believed that once a cell
became specialized as a liver, heart, udder, bone, or any other type of cell,
the change was permanent and other unneeded genes in the cell would become inactive.
Some scientists believe that errors or incompleteness in the reprogramming process
cause the high rates of death, deformity, and disability observed among animal
(3) Therapeutic Cloning
Therapeutic cloning, also called "embryo cloning", is the production
of human embryos for use in research. The goal of these processes is not to
create cloned human beings, but rather to harvest stem cells that can be used
to study human development and to treat disease. Stem cells are important to
biomedical researchers because they can be used to generate virtually any type
of specialized cell in the human body. Stem cells are extracted from the egg
after it has divided for 5 days. The egg at this stage of development is called
a blatocyst. The extraction process destroys the embryo, which raises a variety
of ethical concerns. Many researchers hope that one day stem cells can be used
to serve as replacement cells to treat heart disease, Alzheimer's, cancer, and
In November 2001, scientists from Advanced Cell Technologies (ACT), a biotechnology
company in Massachusetts, announced that they had cloned the first human embryos
for the purpose of advancing therapeutic research. To do this, they collected
eggs from women's ovaries and then removed the genetic material from these eggs
with a needle less than 2/10,000th of an inch wide. A skin cell was inserted
inside the enucleated egg to serve as a new nucleus. The egg began to divide
after it was stimulated with a chemical called ionomycin. The results were limited
in success. Although this process was carried out with eight eggs, only three
began dividing, and only one was able to divide into six cells before stopping.
ORGANS COULD BE CLONED FOR USE IN TRANSPLANTS
Scientists hope that one day therapeutic cloning can be used to generate tissues
and organs for transplants. To do this, DNA would be extracted from the person
in need of a transplant and inserted into a nucleated egg. After the egg containing
the patient's DNA starts to divide, embryonic stem cells can be transformed
into any type of tissue would be harvested. The stem cells would be used to
generate an organ tissue that is a genetic match to the recipient. In theory,
the cloned organ could than be transplanted into the patient without the risk
of tissue rejection. If organs could be generated from cloned human embryos,
the need for organ donation could be significantly reduced.
HUMANS COULD BE CLONED IN ORDER TO ALLOW AN INFERTILE COUPLE TO HAVE A CHILD
The Italian doctor Secerino Atinori wants to offer cloning as a treatment for
infertility. Critics have pointed out that anyone who was a clone of their parents
would be under unknown psychological pressures throughout their childhood. Would
they feel they were living up the achievements of their "original"?
And how would a woman feel about bringing up a much younger version of the person
she fell in love with?
HUMANS COULD BE CLONED IN ORDER TO BRING BACK A CHILD KILLED IN AN ACCIDENT
In recent years, some bereaved families have contacted scientists asking them
to clone a dead child. However, even if human cloning was possible, families
might be distraught to discover their new baby was not exactly like their dead
older brother or sister- and the 'replacement' child might suffer feelings of
inferiority about being born purely to take the place of their dead sibling.
HUMANS COULD CE CLONED TO REPLICATE THE TALENTS OF EXCEPTIONAL HUMAN BEINGS
If Mother Theresa or Einstein could be genetically reproduced, their clones
might choose very different paths in life, and disappoint the people who had
chosen to create them.
Cloning could do many good things for our wildlife and our economy. The process
of cloning can save us a lot of money. A crop that is imported in our country
could instead be cloned here. It would also make the product cheaper. Cloning
would also develop stronger plants, resistant to disease, parasites, and insect
damage. With better plants, cloning could lead to more profit for farmers and
we could clone an abundance of trees, which would help the ecological health
of our planet. Cloning is good for us as a nation and a world, to save many
different types of endangered species. We would also be able to keep an animal
within a controlled number.
THE RISKS OF CLONING:
Reproductive cloning is expensive and highly inefficient. More than 90% of cloning
attempts fail to produce viable offspring. More than 100 nuclear transfer procedures
could be required to produce one viable clone. In addition to low success rates,
cloned animals tend to have more compromised immune function and higher rates
of infection, tumor growth, and other disorders. Japanese studies have shown
that cloned mice live in poor health and die early. Many cloned animals have
not lived long enough to generate good data about how clones age. Appearing
healthy at a young age unfortunately is not a good indicator of long term survival.
Clones have been known to die mysteriously. For example, Australia's first cloned
sheep appeared healthy and energetic on the day she died, and the results from
her autopsy failed to determine the cause of her death.
Cloning destroys the genetic diversity of life. When everything is the same
genetically then it is more likely that the entire population will be wiped
out by their disease or predator. Iam Wilmut, a researcher in Roslin, Scotland
says: "The more you interfere with reproduction, the more danger there
is of things going wrong".
SHOULD HUMANS BE CLONED?
Due to the inefficiency of human cloning and the lack of understanding about
reproductive cloning, many scientists and physicians strongly believe that it
would be unethical to attempt to clone humans, Not only do most attempts to
clone mammals fail, about 30% of clones born alive are affected with "large
offspring syndrome" and other debilitating conditions. Several cloned animals
have died prematurely from infections and other complications. The same problem
would be expected in human cloning. In addition, scientists do not know how
cloning could impact mental development. While factors such as intellect and
mood may not be as important for a cow or mouse, they are crucial for the development
of healthy humans. With so many unknowns concerning reproductive cloning, the
attempt to clone humans at this time is considered potentially dangerous and
WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THIS? IS CLONING ETHICAL? THAT IS A QUESTION THAT WILL
BE WITH US FOR A LONG TIME. ARE THERE BENEFITS OF CLONING? THE ANSWER IS A RESOUNDING
YES. IS THERE A BAD SIDE OF CLONING? THIS IS ANOTHER IRREFUTABLE AFFIRMATIVE.
SHOULD WE CLONE? DO BENEFITS OF HUMAN CLONING OUTWEIGHT THE COSTS OF OUR DIGNITY?
It is your choice!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!