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Proiect engleza - THE SECURITY COUNCIL OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Vizite: ? Nota: ? Ce reprezinta? Intrebari si raspunsuri
 
UNIVERSITY OF BUCHAREST f8h17hx
FACULTY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Section of Translations, Interpretation and Terminology
Project coordinator
Title of the project: THE SECURITY COUNCIL
Name of the student:
THE SECURITY COUNCIL OF THE UNITED NATIONS

1. GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE SECURITY COUNCIL
The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the Charter of the United Nations Organization, for the maintenance of international peace and security. It is so organized as to be able to function continuously, and a representative of each of its members must be present at all times at United Nations Headquarters.
2. COMPOSITION
The Council has 15 members - five permanent members: the Republic of China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America and 10 elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms, due regard being specially paid, in the first instance to the contribution of Members of the United Nations to the maintenance of international peace and security and to the other purposes of the Organization, and also to equitable geographical distribution. Each member of the Security Council shall have one representative. (See article 23 in the Charter of the United Nations Organization)
Members of the Council form two different types of committees:
• Standing Committees refer to two committees at present, and each includes representatives of all Security Council member States: the Committee of Experts on Rules of Procedure (studies and advises on rules of procedure and other technical matters) and the Committee on Admission of New Members.
• Ad Hoc Committees, which are established as needed and comprise all Council members and meet in closed session (Security Council Committee on Council meeting away from Headquarters, Governing Council of the United Nations Compensation Commission established by Security Council resolution 692 (1991) and the Committee established pursuant to Resolution 1373 (2001) concerning Counter-Terrorism
In accordance with the Article 29, Chapter V of the Charter of the United Nations, the Security Council may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.
Therefore, International Tribunals within the Security Council function as:
• International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia - established by S/RES/808(1993) -; International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and
• International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighbouring States - established by S/RES/955 (1994)
Membership and Presidency of the Security Council in 2006





Month Presidency Membership Term Ends
January United Republic of Tanzania 31 December 2006
February United States Permanent Member
March Argentina
31 December 2006
April China Permanent Member
May Congo
31 December 2007
June Denmark
31 December 2006
July France Permanent Member
August Ghana
31 December 2007
September Greece
31 December 2006
October Japan
31 December 2006
November Peru
31 December 2007
December Qatar
31 December 2007
Russian Federation
Permanent Member
Slovakia
31 December 2007
United Kingdom
Permanent Member
The following countries began their two-year membership term on 1 January 2006:
Congo
Ghana Peru
Qatar
Slovakia

3. OPERATION STRATEGY
When a complaint concerning a threat to peace is brought before it, the Council's first action is usually to recommend to the parties to try to reach agreement by peaceful means. In some cases, the Council itself undertakes investigation and mediation. It may appoint special representatives or request the Secretary-General to do so or to use his good offices. It may set forth principles for a peaceful settlement.

When a dispute leads to fighting, the Council's first concern is to bring it to an end as soon as possible. On many occasions, the Council has issued cease-fire directives which have been instrumental in preventing wider hostilities. It also sends United Nations peace-keeping forces to help reduce tensions in troubled areas, keep opposing forces apart and create conditions of calm in which peaceful settlements may be sought. The Council may decide on enforcement measures, economic sanctions (such as trade embargoes) or collective military action.

A Member State against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. A Member State which has persistently violated the principles of the Charter may be expelled from the United Nations by the Assembly on the Council's recommendation.

A State which is a Member of the United Nations but not of the Security Council may participate, without a vote, in its discussions when the Council considers that that country's interests are affected. Both Members of the United Nations and non-members, if they are parties to a dispute being considered by the Council, are invited to take part, without a vote, in the Council's discussions; the Council sets the conditions for participation by a non-member State.

Peace-keeping Operations
Between June 1948 and August 2000, there have been 53 United Nations peace-keeping operations.
4. PROCEDURE
According to Article 28, Chapter V, from the Charter of the United Nations, the Security Council shall be so organized as to be able to function continuously. Each member of the Security Council shall for this purpose be represented at all times at the seat of the Organization. The Security Council shall hold periodic meetings at which each of its members may, if it so desires, be represented by a member of the government or by some other specially designated representative The Security Council may hold meetings at such places other than the seat of the Organization as in its judgment will best facilitate its work.
The method of electing the President of the Security Council and the adopting of its own rules of procedure are to be adopted by the Security Council (See Article 30)



5. VOTING
Each member of the Security Council shall have one vote. Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent members (See Chapter V, Article 27 from the Charter of the United Nations); provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph 3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting.
Decisions on procedural matters are made by an affirmative vote of at least nine of the 15 members. Decisions on substantive matters require nine votes, including the concurring votes of all five permanent members. This is the rule of "great Power unanimity", often referred to as the "veto" power.
Under the Charter, all Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council. While other organs of the United Nations make recommendations to Governments, the Council alone has the power to take decisions which Member States are obligated under the Charter to carry out.
6. FUNCTIONS AND POWERS
Under the Charter, the functions and powers of the Security Council are:
• to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations. According to Article 24, Chapter V from the Charter of the United Nations, “In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf.”
• to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction;
• to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement;
• to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments;
• to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken;
• to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;
• to take military action against an aggressor;
• to recommend the admission of new Members;
• to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in "strategic areas";
• to recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.
In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The specific powers granted to the Security Council for the discharge of these duties are laid down in Chapters VI, VII, VIII, and XII.of the Charter of the United Nations.
Also, according to Article 24, The Security Council shall submit annual and, when necessary, special reports to the General Assembly for its consideration.
The Security Council has to submit its decisions to the Members of the United Nations who, in turn, have to accept and carry them out. In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources, the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating, with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee referred to in Article 47, plans to be submitted to the Members of the United Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments.

Glossary of Terms Used:


Ad Hoc Committee: established as needed and comprises all Council members, meeting in closed session; it includes the Security Council Committee on Council meeting away from Headquarters, Governing Council of the United Nations Compensations Commission established by Security Council resolution 692 (1991) and the Committee established pursuant to Resolution 1373 (2001) concerning Counter-Terrorism;
Charter of the United Nations Organization: body draw up at the San Francisco Conference in 1945, based on proposals drafted at the Dumbarton Oaks conference. The intention was to preserve the wartime alliance of the USA, URSS, and Britain (with France and China also permanent members) in order to maintain the peace. This never happened because of the outbreak of the Cold War;
General Assembly: one member from each of the 159 member states who meet annually for a session generally lasting from late September to the end of the year;
International Tribunals: either of International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Teritory of the Former Yugoslavia or the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighbouring States;
International Court of Justice: 15 independent judges, elected by the Security Council and the General Assemblt on the basis of their nationalities, except that no 2 judges can be nationals of the 2 same states;
Member of the Security Council: permanent member: one of the following countries: USA, the Republic of China, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northen Ireland, France, Russia; non-permanent member: one of the 10 countries elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms;
Secretary General: Chief administrator of the United Nations, appointed by the General Assembly for a renewable fife-year term;
Security Council Committee: either the Standing Committee or the Ad Hoc Committee;
Standing Committee: two committees at present , each including representatives of all Security Council members States: the Committee of Experts on Rules of Procedure (studies and advises on rules of procedure and other technical matters) and the Committee on Admission of New Members;
United Nations Organizations: Associations of states for international peace, security and cooperation with its headquarters in New York, USA;
United Nations Security Council: most powerful body of the United Nations Organizations.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
• Andrei Popescu, Alina Dinu, Organizatii Europene si Euroatlantice, Ed.Fundatiei “Romania de maine”, Bucuresti 2004;
• Vasile Cretu, Drept International Public, Ed.Fundatiei “Romania de maine”, Bucuresti , 2001;
• Nicolae Pavel, Iulian Somacescu, Ifrim Dumitru, Drepturile Omului. Documente adoptate de organisme internationale, Ed. Adevarul, Bucuresti, 1990;
• https://www.dadalos.org






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