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IMPERATIVUL, PASSIVE VOICE (DIATEZA PASIVA), INFINITIVUL, GERUNZIUL
Vizite: ? Nota: ? Ce reprezinta? Intrebari si raspunsuri
 

- nu se poate forma decat pentru persoana a II-a sg si pl din infinitivul scurt al verbului g5c20co
- nu are nevoie de subiect
- pentru celelalte persoane se formeaza din let + pronume personal in AC + V infinitiv scurt

- imperativul negativ are in fata negatia “don’t”
- pentru subliniere se poate pune “do” si la persoana a II-a
Ex: Do sit down! (stai dracului jos!)

! propozitiile impersonale care contin un pronume nehotarat (somebody, someone, etc.) ca subiect, vor putea pune subiectul si in fata si dupa verb
Ex: Someone give us a helpful hand!
Answer the phone, someone!

! orice propozitie imperativa are tag question in viitor
Ex: Listen carefully, won’t you?

Tag-ul se poate folosi si in afirmativ
Ex: Just write your exercise, will you?

! orice propozitie imperativa devine in vorbirea indirecta infinitiv lung
Ex: Come here! => He told me to come.

PASSIVE VOICE (DIATEZA PASIVA)

- in diateza activa, subiectul face actiunea
- in diateza pasiva, actiunea facuta de subiect se repercuteaza asupra acestuia

Subiectul din diateza activa devine complement de agent, iar CD din diateza activa devine subiect in pasiva.
Ex: 1) I write the letter.
S CD

2) The letter is written by me.
S C agent

Diateza pasiva presupune un verb “to be”, iar verbul de baza va fi la forma:
V III + by + C agent

! o propozitie care are atat CD cat si CI are 2 forme de pasiv, fiecare complement devenind pe rand subiect
Ex: I give him my book.
CI CD devine
The book is given to him by me.
S
He is given the book by me.
S
Aspectul si timpul predicatului din activa se mentin in pasiva.
! complementul de agent poate sa lipseasca daca este un pronume
Ex: I read the book.
The book is read (by me). -; poate sa lipseasca





! daca subiectul este impersonal (somebody / someone), el poate de asemenea sa lipseasca

DIATEZA ACTIVA DIATEZA PASIVA

1) I eat an egg. An egg is eaten.
2) I am eating an egg. An egg is being eaten.
3) I have eaten an egg. An egg has been eaten.
4) I have been eating an egg. 5) I ate an egg. An egg was eaten.
6) I was eating an egg. An egg was being eaten.
7) I had eaten an egg. An egg had been eaten.
8) I had been eating an egg. 9) I shall eat an egg. An egg will be eaten.
10) I’m going to eat an egg. An egg is going to be eaten.
11) I am to eat an egg. An egg is to be eaten.
12) I’m about to eat an egg. An egg is about to be eaten.
13) … I should eat an egg. … an egg would be eaten.
14) I shall have eaten an egg. An egg will have been eaten.

! atentie la prepozitiile care se aseaza la final (vor rezulta 2 prepozitii una dupa alta)
Ex: They sent for the doctor.
The doctor was sent for by them.

Everybody laughed at him.
He was laughed at by everybody.

! anumite verbe (to eat, to feel, to wear, to wash, to sell, to read, to perform) nu pot avea forma pasiva cand vrei sa spui ca sunt de foarte buna calitate / se vand singure / se poarta singure, etc.
Ex: These books sold quickly. (si nu have been sold)
The shoes wore comfortably. (si nu have been worn)

! verbul “to grow” nu poate avea sens de diateza pasiva pentru ca este de la sine

INFINITIVUL

Este de 2 feluri: a) -; scurt (fara “to” in fata) -; care este prezent (to come) si perfect (to have come) b) -; lung (cu “to” in fata)

Utilizare:
1) dupa verbele modale
Ex: I can do it.
2) dupa verbele de perceptie (to see, to hear, to feel) + (to make, to let, to help, to get)
Ex: Let her go!

3) dupa expresiile had best had better
would rather had rather
would sooner had sooner need hardly
! conditia este sa fie acelasi subiect ca sa punem infinitivul scurt
Ex: I would rather go there.
He would rather go there. diferit de
I would rather you didn’t go there.

4) alte utilizari ale infinitivului a) pronume/subst in AC + infinitiv - se foloseste dupa
1) verbe de perceptie
Ex: I saw her cross the street.

2) verbe de dorinta (to want, to desire, to intend, etc.)
Ex: I want you to understand the lesson.

3) verbe care arata o activitate mentala (to believe, to consider, to expect)
Ex: I imagine him to be right.
I know her to live in this flat.

4) verbe care exprima permisiunea (to allow, to order, to warn, to oblige)
Ex: My mother allowed us to leave.

5) in constructii impersonale (it is difficult, it is important, it is necessary)
Ex: It is difficult to understand this problem.
It is difficult for her to understand this problem.

6) dupa verbele (to advise, to convince, to choose, to enable, to challenge)
Ex: She advised me not to leave.

b) pronume/subst in N + infinitiv - se foloseste dupa
1) anumite verbe in diateza pasiva to believe to expect to hear to imagine to know to notice to say
Ex: You are known to be a very good teacher.
2) anumite verbe in diateza activa to chance to appear to happen to prove to seem
Ex: You happened to be there.
You seem to know the answer.



3) in constructiile impersonale to be lucky to be unlucky to be fortunate to be unfortunate to be likely to be sure to be negative / positive
Ex: I’m lucky to be your friend.

Alte ulitizari ale infinitivului
1) in ordine / comenzi
Ex: Go and close the window!

2) pentru a exprima un scop
Ex: I went to the doctor to cure my desease.

3) dupa adjective (brave, curageous, foolish, generous, kind)
Ex: It’s kind of her to say this.

4) dupa numeralul ordinal
Ex: He is the first to come.

5) dupa adjectiv la superlativ
Ex: He is the best to do it.

6) dupa adjectivele de genul (dangerous. hard, difficult)
Ex: It si difficult to get there.

7) dupa “the only”
Ex: He is the only person to understand me.

8) dupa “too”
Ex: It’s too hot to breathe there.

9) dupa “enough”
Ex: You are clever enough not to do it again.

10) in proverbe
Ex: To forgive is to forget.

11) in vorbirea indirecta (dupa imperativ)
GERUNZIUL
Forma: V + ing
Are mai multe valori:
1) substantiv
Ex: Reading is important.

2) participiu prezent (in constructia timpurilor continue)
Ex: I’m doing my homework.

3) gerunziu
Ex: Reading, I understood all my problems.

Urmatoarele verbe cer gerunziu: admit advise anticipate avoid begin consider continue delay denny detest dislike enjoy escape excuse finish forgive forget hate imagine intend involve like love mind miss omit postpone practise recollect remember regret resist risk save start stop suggest try understand
Expresii cu verbe: accuse of aim at agree with approve of consist in count on excuse from insist on prevent from rely on result in succeed in think of be afraid of be agreeable of be annoyed at averse to be capable of be intent on be interested in be responsible for be suitable for be surprised at be tired of get used to / be used to get accustomed to / be accustomed to go on keep on give up put off can’t help can’t stand it’s no good / it’s no use be looking forward to be worth feel like

Expresii cu substantive: appology for art of change of dissapointment at experience in habbit of necessity of objection to opportunity of pleasure of possibility of process of reason for right of skill in surprise at
way of

Dupa prepozitiile: as than like as well as
Ex: Living here is like dying little by little.

Atentionari / indicatoare: no parking / no smoking

CORESPONDENTA TIMPURILOR
1) daca in principala avem prezent, in secundara putem avea orice
Ex: I know she is / will be / was here.

2) daca in principala avem viitor, in secundara avem prezent a) simplu -; daca depinde de un program b) continuu -; daca depinde de subiect c) perfect -; daca a inceput intr-un moment anterior

3) daca in principala avem trecut, in secundara avem 3 raporturi: a) simultaneitate (actiuni paralele) => in secundara avem trecut
Ex: While I was dancing, he took my hand. b) anterioritate => in secundara avem past perfect
Ex: I told him I had met her before. c) posterioritate => in secundara avem future in the past
Ex: I told him I should go there.
! pt adevaruri universal valabile nu se respecta regula cu trecutul
Ex: He told me that the sun rises from East.






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